Evaluation of 9 Rapid Agglutination Tests for the Diagnosis of Typhoid and Parathyphoid Fever in Côte D'ivoire

André Inwoley1, 2, *, Roseline Affi-Aboli1, Matthieu Kabran1, 2, Aimé Césaire Adiko1, Nadège-Audrey Abiyou1, Franck Stéphane Amani1, Jean-Claude Seka1, Bamory Dembele1
1 Immunology Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceuticals and Biological Sciences, University Felix Houphouet Boigny, Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire
2 Centre for Diagnosis and Research on AIDS and other Infectious Diseases, Treichville, Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire

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© Inwoley et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Immunology Unit, Faculty of Pharmaceuticals and Biological Sciences, University Felix Houphouet Boigny, BP V 34 Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire; Tel: (225) 05058587; E-mail:



In Africa, the Widal test is done in the majority of laboratories by rapid tests whose performances are poorly documented. We evaluate the performance of 9 commercial rapid tests used in Côte d'Ivoire for the serodiagnosis of typhoid and paratyphoid fever.


we used a panel of 170 samples collected from subjects suspected of typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Abidjan to determine the sensitivity, the specificity and operational characteristics of 9 plate agglutination tests (BIOREX®, BIOTEC®, CHRONOLAB®, CROMATEST®, FORTRESS®, PLASMATEC®, CYPRESS®, SPINREACT® and TYDAL®) compared to the reference technique SALMONELLA SEROLOGY® of BIORAD (tube agglutination).


Among the 9 evaluated tests, only BIOTEC® presented good performances (96% sensitivity and 97% specificity). Others gave sensitivities below 80%. Their characteristics were improved with the semi-quantitative plate agglutination test. All tests had good operational characteristics.


In our context, the majority of tests evaluated should not be used to carry out the Widal test.

Keywords: Assessment panel, Paratyphoid fevers, Sensitivity, Specificity, Typhoid Widal test.