Lifestyle Factors that can Induce an Independent and Persistent Low-Grade Systemic Inflammatory Response: A Wholistic Approach

George Vrousgos*
School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 3347
Abstract HTML Views: 1697
PDF Downloads: 523
ePub Downloads: 423
Total Views/Downloads: 5990
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 1248
Abstract HTML Views: 994
PDF Downloads: 361
ePub Downloads: 290
Total Views/Downloads: 2893

Creative Commons License
© George Vrousgos; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Health and Human Services, State Government of Victoria, Australia; Tel: +61+423063174; Email:


Subclinical inflammation was first shown in numerous chronic medical illnesses and in the early 1900s, activation of immune-inflammatory pathways was initially observed in a lifestyle-related disorder such as depression. A chronic mild inflammatory state is also a key feature of obesity as well as insulin resistance and other metabolic diseases. This particular form of immune process has given rise to the concept of “metaflammation” (metabolically triggered inflammation) because it can target vital organs and tissues that are critical for the regulation of metabolism, and ultimately disrupt systemic homoeostasis with detrimental health effects. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates a link between metaflammation and a number of lifestyle factors. Lifestyle variables such as ultra-endurance exercise, physical inactivity, extremes of sleep duration, cigarette smoking, burnout, anxiety, and depression can activate multiple immune-inflammatory pathways. Therefore, this review of the literature that bears hallmarks of a systematic review investigates and presents published research data of these lifestyle factors that can induce an independent and persistent low-grade systemic inflammatory response, within the human body, evaluated through the measurement of various biomarkers.

Keywords: Anxiety, Burnout, Cigarette Smoking, Depression, Extremes of Sleep Duration, Metaflammation, Physical Inactivity, Ultra-Endurance Exercise.