RESEARCH ARTICLE


Lifestyle Factors that can Induce an Independent and Persistent Low-Grade Systemic Inflammatory Response: A Wholistic Approach



George Vrousgos*
School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia


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© George Vrousgos; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Health and Human Services, State Government of Victoria, Australia; Tel: +61+423063174; Email: George.Vrousgos@dhhs.vic.gov.au


Abstract

Subclinical inflammation was first shown in numerous chronic medical illnesses and in the early 1900s, activation of immune-inflammatory pathways was initially observed in a lifestyle-related disorder such as depression. A chronic mild inflammatory state is also a key feature of obesity as well as insulin resistance and other metabolic diseases. This particular form of immune process has given rise to the concept of “metaflammation” (metabolically triggered inflammation) because it can target vital organs and tissues that are critical for the regulation of metabolism, and ultimately disrupt systemic homoeostasis with detrimental health effects. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates a link between metaflammation and a number of lifestyle factors. Lifestyle variables such as ultra-endurance exercise, physical inactivity, extremes of sleep duration, cigarette smoking, burnout, anxiety, and depression can activate multiple immune-inflammatory pathways. Therefore, this review of the literature that bears hallmarks of a systematic review investigates and presents published research data of these lifestyle factors that can induce an independent and persistent low-grade systemic inflammatory response, within the human body, evaluated through the measurement of various biomarkers.

Keywords: Anxiety, Burnout, Cigarette Smoking, Depression, Extremes of Sleep Duration, Metaflammation, Physical Inactivity, Ultra-Endurance Exercise.