The Use of Technical Simulation Training in Surgical Education in the United Kingdom

Emma Snashall1, Orod Osanlou2, Sandip Hindocha1, *
1 Department of Plastic Surgery, Whiston Hospital, Merseyside, L35 5DR, UK
2 Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, Merseyside, L7 8XP, UK

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Creative Commons License
© Snashall et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Whiston Hospital, Liverpool, UK L35 5DR; x2028; Tel: + 44(0)1244366265; Fax: +44(0)1244366265; E-mail:


Simulation training, where a scenario or setting is replicated, is now firmly associated with surgical training. Involving both technical and non-technical competencies, it provides a valuable tool in training new skills to both new and current surgeons.

As patient safety becomes more of a focus, alongside advances in technology and surgical techniques, there is a continued concern regarding operative exposure for futures surgeons. This void in which simulated training fits, a claim supported by an expanding literature base.

The recent integration of simulation into training curricula aims to promote consistency in access to simulation facilities across deaneries and invite the experience of dedicated instructors to optimise educational use.

Keywords: Simulation, Training, Surgery, Education.