The Use of Robotic Assisted Surgery; the Current and Future Challenges

Reza Mafi1, *, Pouya Mafi2, Marco Malahias3
1 Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, England, UK
2 Barts and The London NHS Trust, Whipps Cross University Hospital, London, UK
3 Department of Plastic Surgery, Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust, UK

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Creative Commons License
© Mafi et al.; Licensee Bentham Open

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International Public License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (, which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, England, UK; Tel: + 44(0)1482875875; Fax: +44(0)1482875875; E-mail:



Living with robots has always been regarded as a science fiction theme, however due to rapid advances in technology it is becoming more of a reality. The use of robots in surgery dates back to more than 25 years, and has previously been of great assistance to humans in the fields of Aeronautics and Armed forces. An evolutionary step was made after collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Stanford Research Institute in the field of robotic-assisted surgery. Thereafter, more surgical specialties incorporated this technology in surgical procedures. The objective of this article is to review different applications, challenges, and the future of robotic surgery.


We have used a systematic approach to look at the most relevant published articles regarding robotic-assisted surgery. This review has taken 26 articles into consideration that have met the inclusion criteria of using of robotic- assisted technology in surgical procedures.


Robotic surgery is being used in numerous surgical fields such as pediatrics, urology, cardiovascular surgery, gynecology, otolaryngology, general surgery and orthopedics. It has resulted in a reduction in length of stay, post-operative complication and scarring. However, for achieving optimal outcomes, further development in improving the sensory feedback and reducing the lag time during the transmission of long-range telesurgery is required.

Keywords: Robotic Assisted Surgery, Robotic Surgery, Telesurgery.