Adiponectin, a protein secreted by adipocytes, gained a special medical attention in the past two decades mostly due to its relation to obesity, a major health problem worldwide. Moreover, adiponectin has shown to have a preventive effect on insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Lately, obesity has been classified as a chronic inflammatory state, whereby dysregulated adipocytes and high infiltration of macrophages shift toward the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-6 among others. This status contributes to a decrease in adiponectin levels, thus leading to the emergence of obesity related complications. This review will focus on the hormone adiponectin and its mechanisms of action in relation to insulin resistance, diabetes, cardiovascular effect and atherosclerosis. It will also cover the various therapeutic approaches aiming to increase the levels of this important cytokine, and to highlight the promising role of AdipoRon, an adiponectin receptor agonist, and of diet.

Keywords: Adiponectin, Obesity, TNF-α, IL-6, Cytokine, AdipoRon.
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