REVIEW ARTICLE


Adiponectin and Inflammation in Health and Disease: An Update



Alice G. Geagea1, Samir Mallat2, *, Charbel F. Matar2, Raymond Zerbe1, Estelle Filfili1, Maria Francis1, Hanine Haidar1, Abdo Jurjus1, *
1 Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut (AUB), Beirut, Lebanon
2 Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), Beirut, Lebanon


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© 2018 Geagea et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Anatomy, Cell Biology and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon, P.O. Box 110236/41 Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107-2020 Beirut, Lebanon; Tel: 00961350000; Ext. 4785, Fax: 009611480687; E-mail: aj00@aub.edu.lb* Address Co-correspondence to this author at the Department of Internal Medicine, Division Nephrology, American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC), Beirut, Lebanon P.O. Box 110236/41 Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107-2020 Beirut, Lebanon; E-mail: sm104@aub.edu.lb


Abstract

Adiponectin, a protein secreted by adipocytes, gained a special medical attention in the past two decades mostly due to its relation to obesity, a major health problem worldwide. Moreover, adiponectin has shown to have a preventive effect on insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Lately, obesity has been classified as a chronic inflammatory state, whereby dysregulated adipocytes and high infiltration of macrophages shift toward the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-6 among others. This status contributes to a decrease in adiponectin levels, thus leading to the emergence of obesity related complications. This review will focus on the hormone adiponectin and its mechanisms of action in relation to insulin resistance, diabetes, cardiovascular effect and atherosclerosis. It will also cover the various therapeutic approaches aiming to increase the levels of this important cytokine, and to highlight the promising role of AdipoRon, an adiponectin receptor agonist, and of diet.

Keywords: Adiponectin, Obesity, TNF-α, IL-6, Cytokine, AdipoRon.