Kurds HLA Genes: Its Implications in Transplantation and Pharmacogenomics

Ali Amirzargar1, §, Diego Rey2, §, Ester Muñiz2, Jose Palacio-Grüber2, Behrouz Nikbin1, Hosein Nicknam1, Farideh Khosravi3, Hamidreza Joshghan4, Cristina Areces2, Mercedes Enríquez-de-Salamanca2, Narcisa Martinez-Quiles2, José Manuel Martín-Villa2, Antonio Arnaiz-Villena*, 2
1 Molecular Immunology Research Center, Medical School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Departament of Immunology, University Complutense, School of Medicine, Madrid Regional Blood Center, Madrid, Spain
3 Noor Pathobiology Laboratory, Tehran, Iran
4 Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Golestan, Iran

Article Metrics

CrossRef Citations:
Total Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 6640
Abstract HTML Views: 1778
PDF Downloads: 712
Total Views/Downloads: 9130
Unique Statistics:

Full-Text HTML Views: 2772
Abstract HTML Views: 1001
PDF Downloads: 482
Total Views/Downloads: 4255

Creative Commons License
© Amirzargar et al.; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Departamento de Inmunología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense, Pabellón 5, planta 4. Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Tel: +34 91 3017354; Fax: +34 91 3017229; E-mail:
§ These authors contributed equally for this work and the order of authorship is arbitrary.


HLA genes (class I and II) have been studied in a Kurd population from Iran (North West towns of Saqqez and Baneh, close to Irak border). Kurds speak an Iranian language. HLA Kurd profile has been compared with those of Central Asians, Siberians, Mediterraneans and other worldwide populations; a total of 7746 chromosomes were used for computer comparisons. Both Neighbor-joining and correspondence genetic analyses place Kurds in the Mediterranean population cluster, close to Iranians, Europeans and Caucasus populations (Svan and Georgian). New extended HLA haplotypes are described, being A*02:01-B*35:01-DRB1*01:01-DQB1*05:01 and A*24:02-B*18:09-DRB1*11:01- DQB1*03:01 the most frequent ones; other Kurd extended haplotypes are also found in Azeris and Palestinians. This research work may be useful for: 1) future Iranian Kurds transplantation regional programs, 2) HLA pharmacogenomics in order to practise a preventive Medicine and drug side effects, and 3) Epidemiology of HLA-associated diseases in Kurds.

Keywords:: Anthropology, Caucasus, HLA, Iranians, Kurds, Mediterraneans, Transplant and Pharmacogenomics.