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Recent Updates on the Effect of Endocrine Disruptors on Male Reproductive Functions



Roshini Rajendran1, Latchoumycandane Calivarathan1, Premendu Prakash Mathur2, *
1 Molecular Pharmacology & Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Neelakudi Campus, Thiruvarur – 610005, India
2 Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry University, Puducherry – 605014, India


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Rajendran et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, School of Life Sciences, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry – 605014, India; and Department of Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur – 610005, Tamil Nadu, India; Tel/Fax: +91-674-7103001; E-mail: ppmathur@yahoo.com


Abstract

Endocrine disruptors are man-made or naturally occurring chemical substances, upon exposure, alter the male reproductive health by interfering with hormonal homeostasis and spermatogenesis. Several studies have supported the hypothesis that a decrease in sperm count over the past few decades is due to exposure to environmental contaminants possessing estrogenic or anti-androgenic properties. Bisphenol A, phthalates, alkylphenols, and polychlorinated biphenyls are some of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals commonly present in our day-to-day products that have been shown to pose a significant threat to reproductive health. Many chemicals directly or indirectly affect the endocrine systems, altering metabolism, sex differentiation, growth, stress response, gender behavior, and reproduction. The endocrine pathway disruption is possible via membrane receptors or nuclear receptors and inhibition of enzymatic pathways. The declining male reproductive health has been linked to an increased presence of chemical contaminants in our environment in the form of pesticides and plastics. The effect of endocrine disruptors on reproductive health remains a real issue considering public health. This review gives a recent update on environmental chemicals that have endocrine-disrupting potential and their effect on the male reproductive system.

Keywords: Endocrine disruptors, Pesticide, Sperm Testicular function, Pesticides, Public health, Growth.